• BIOINFORMATICS is the analysis of biological data using computational-based tools to answer biological problems. As an example, bioinformatic analysis can be used to help us discover what the DNA sequences from different organisms can tell us about how they adapt to living in different environments.
  • DNA is the molecule that contains the genetic information of (almost) all living things. We can think of it as a “big book” made up of four letters: A, C, G, and T. In humans, this book has about 3 billion letters; while in fruit flies it has approximately 175 million letters. You can read more in the section DNA.
    • DNA SEQUENCING consists of reading these letters in order to decipher the genetic information contained in the genome. Currently, sequencing is performed using very powerful machines that allow many samples to be read in a relatively short period of time while using relatively few resources.
An example of the results of DNA sequencing.
  • FRONTIER SCIENCE is the science taking place at the limits of knowledge; exploring topics that are not yet well known and solving questions that we are yet to answer.
  • GENOMICS is an ‘omic’ science, that is, it studies all the biological elements of a certain type, in this case: genes, the minimum units of our genetic information.
    • ADAPTATION GENOMICS studies genes related to the adaptation of organisms to new environmental conditions, for example, a change in climate, the appearance of some difficulty (such as an antibiotic for bacteria), etc.